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Citation of your b-money page

Satoshi’s first known email, with an early draft of the whitepaper titled ‘Electronic Cash Without a Trusted Third Party.’

From: Satoshi Nakamoto <[email protected]>
Sent: Friday, August 22, 2008 4:38 PM
To: Wei Dai <[email protected]>
Cc: Satoshi Nakamoto <[email protected]>
Subject: Citation of your b-money page

I was very interested to read your b-money page.  I'm getting ready to
release a paper that expands on your ideas into a complete working system.
Adam Back ( noticed the similarities and pointed me to your

I need to find out the year of publication of your b-money page for the
citation in my paper.  It'll look like:
[1] W. Dai, "b-money,", (2006?).

You can download a pre-release draft at  Feel free to forward it to
anyone else you think would be interested.

Title: Electronic Cash Without a Trusted Third Party

Abstract: A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow
online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without the
burdens of going through a financial institution.  Digital signatures
offer part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted
party is still required to prevent double-spending.  We propose a solution
to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network.  The network
timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of
hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without
redoing the proof-of-work.  The longest chain not only serves as proof of
the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest
pool of CPU power.  As long as honest nodes control the most CPU power on
the network, they can generate the longest chain and outpace any
attackers.  The network itself requires minimal structure.  Messages are
broadcasted on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the
network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of
what happened while they were gone.